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History of Islam - Timeline

History of Islam - Timeline


Overview


570 Birth of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh)
622 The Hijrah. Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) and Muslims migrate to medina. (Start of the Islamic state)
632 Death of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh)
610-632 Spread of Islam to Arabia
632-690 Spread of Islam across the middle east and north Africa
690-711 Spread of Islam into Spain, Central Asia and Sind (north east India)


Central Governments 632-1258


632-660   First four Caliphs


The first four leaders of the Muslim nation were concerned in preserving and establishing Islam following the death of the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh). Each was a companion of the Prophet (pbuh), and they became known as the ?Rightly Guided Caliphs?. The capital of the government was held in Medina.



660-750   Umayyad dynasty


A shift of power to the Umayyad family, the capital of this government was in Damascus, Syria. There was expansion of the Islamic empire by military conquests, but no mass conversions; religious freedom prevailed.




750-1258   Abbasid dynasty


Known as the ?Golden Age of Islam? because of the unprecedented advances in the sciences and the arts, the Abbasid dynasty spanned years of peace and prosperity for the Islamic state, and spread of the religion was largely by the expanding trade routes. The capital of this dynasty was in Baghdad, Iraq.


1095-1291   Crusader wars




1220   Invasion of the Mongols.


Led by Genghis Khan, a confederation of nomadic tribes that had already conquered China now attacked the Muslims. There was widespread destruction of scholarly works and agricultural advances. Politically and economically, the Mongol invasions were disastrous. The Muslim empire never fully regained its previous power.




711 ?1492   Islamic Spain



Division in power. The three major Islamic powers



1301-1922   The Ottoman Empire


The Ottoman Empire was the most powerful Muslim state and became a powerful state in the world. It covered most of the Middle East; Arabia, Kuwait, Iraq, Syria, Palestine, as well as Turkey, South- East Europe, parts of Southern Russia, North Africa, the Red Sea and much of the Black and Mediterranean Seas. The Ottomans were renowned for their powerful Navy and Army, as well as promoting art and architecture.



1501-1722   The Safavid Empire


The Safavids ruled over Persia, the capital of this Empire was Isfahan, which became one of the most beautiful cities in the world.



1500s-1600s   The Mughal empire


The Mughuls were the descendants of the conquering Mongol invaders. They ruled modern day India and Pakistan and brought Islamic, Arabic and Persian influences into India, for instance in the development of Urdu.



1800s-1900s   Decline of the Islamic states




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